Monday, February 3, 2020

Managing Diversity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Managing Diversity - Essay Example has emerged within the past 20 years and spawned from the equal opportunity act which was promulgated in the workforce by the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. This law extended voting rights and outlawed racial segregation in the schools, housing or hiring practices. With the passage of this act, American organizations began to hire new employees from different races, ethnic backgrounds and religions into sectors they were once excluded from. There is an undeniable difference between diversity and equal opportunity. Equal opportunity employment has deep historical roots. The law was enacted after years of unfair practices in different sectors denied equal opportunities simply based upon a person’s race, gender or national origin. The passing of this law developed a definition for minorities and now prohibits discrimination based upon a person’s age, gender, religion, sex, race, color or national origin. Diversity promotes accepting individual differences. The business ideals of diversity states that inclusion of a diverse workforce better equip a company to thrive in a marketplace. Exclusion of a diverse approach isolates demographics and limits perspectives. An example of such an implementation of diversity is the inspirational movie Glory Road. The 1966 college basketball team base on the Texas Westerns won the NCAA championship while promoting diversity. Don Haskins, the first year coach of the team, pioneered diversity by recruiting players deemed best for the positions and sidestepping traditional hiring practices. The hiring of the new folks in nontraditional roles is an exemplary example of the advantages of diversity. The team put racial differences aside and worked collectively to attain the coveted championship prize. Peter F. Drucker, author of â€Å"The Theory of the Business† (1995: 100) reveals that a valid theory of business suggests that the assumptions about environment, mission and core competencies must fit reality.. Over

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Distance Measurement Using RSSI Method in WSN

Distance Measurement Using RSSI Method in WSN Distance Measurement Using RSSI Method in Wireless Sensor Networks Akhand Pratp Singh, Devesh Pratap Singh, Santosh Kumar Abstract. RSSI method gives distance measurement between beacon nodes and unknown node. RSSI is Range-based localization depends on the assumption that the absolute distance between a sender and a receiver can be estimated by one or more features of the communication signal from the sender to the receiver. RSSI measurement is not more relevant because the RF signal is affected by the environment, the exact distance between the nodes cannot obtain by RSSI measurement by RSSI. Keywords: Received Signal Strength Indicator method, RSSI method, Distance Measurement by RSSI. Introduction Wireless Sensor Networks can be generally defined as network of nodes that cooperatively sense and control the environment enabling interaction between persons or computers and the surrounding environment. WSNs are mostly used in military surveillance, industrial process control and environmental monitoring. Node localization is a big problem of wireless sensor networks applications [1].According to estimation of node localization [2][3], the localization algorithms[3] can be divided into two categories: range-based and range-free. Range-based method calculates the localization between neighboring sensors. Several ranging techniques are possible for range measurement, such as time of arrival, time difference of arrival, angle of arrival, or the receive signal strength indicator (RSSI) [3]. Range free techniques solution depends only on the contents of received messages, which does not estimate the distance or angle between the nodes. Typical range-free localization algorithms [7] inc luded Centroid, DV-Hop, Amorphous, MDS-MAP[14] and APIT, and so on [3]. Localization algorithm [7] based on range-based has higher accuracy but requires additional hardware on sensor nodes. Localization of Wireless Sensor Networks Localization [8] is the process by which sensor nodes determine their location. In simple terms, localization is a mechanism for discovering spatial relationships between objects. The various approaches taken in literature to solve this localization problem differ in the assumptions they make about their respective network and sensor capabilities. A detailed, but not exhaustive, list of assumptions made include assumptions about device hardware, signal propagation models, timing and energy requirements, composition of network via homogeneous vs. heterogeneous, operational environment via indoor vs. outdoor, beacon density, time synchronization, communication costs, error requirements, and node mobility [9]. Localization of WSNs is classified in two approaches [5]. Direct Approaches This is also known as absolute localization. The direct approach itself can be classified into two types: Manual configuration and 8GPS-based localization [5]. The manual configuration method is very cumbersome and expensive. It is neither practical nor scalable for large scale WSNs and in particular, does not adapt well for WSNs with node mobility. The GPS-based localization method, each sensor is equipped with a GPS receiver. This method adapts well for WSNs with node mobility [6]. However, there is a downside to this method. It is not economically feasible to equip each sensor with a GPS receiver since WSNs are deployed with 100 of 1000 of sensors. This also increases the size of each sensor, rendering them unfit for pervasive environments. Also, the GPS receivers only work well outdoors on earth and have line-of-sight requirement constraints. Such Wireless Sensor Networks can’t be used for underwater applications like habitat monitoring, water pollution level monitoring, t sunami monitoring [5], etc. Indirect Approaches The indirect approach [5] of localization is also known as relative localization [4] since nodes position themselves relative to other nodes in their vicinity. The indirect approaches of localization were introduced to overcome some of the drawbacks of the GPS-based direct localization techniques [9] while retaining some of its advantages, like accuracy of localization. In this approach, a small subset of nodes in the network, called the beacon nodes, are either equipped with GPS receivers to compute their location or are manually configured with their location. These beacon nodes then send beams of signals providing their location to all sensor nodes in their vicinity that don’t have a GPS receiver. Using the transmitted signal containing the location information[4], sensor nodes compute their location. This approach effectively reduces the overhead introduced by the GPS-based method. However, since the beacon nodes are also operating in the same hostile environment as the se nsor nodes, they too are vulnerable to various threats, including physical capture by adversaries. This introduces new security threats concerning the honesty of the beacon nodes in providing location information Since they could have been tampered by the adversary and misbehave by providing incorrect location information. Within the indirect approach, the localization process can be classified into the following two categories. A. Range-based In range-based [5] localization, the location of a node is computed relative to other nodes in its vicinity. Range-based localization depends on the assumption that the absolute distance between a sender and a receiver can be estimated by one or more features of the communication signal from the sender to the receiver. The accuracy of such estimation, however, is subject to the transmission medium and surrounding environment. Range based techniques usually rely on complex hardware which is not feasible for WSNs since sensor nodes are highly resource-constrained and have to be produced at throwaway prices as they are deployed in large numbers. Some range-based localization techniques are as follows Angle of Arrival, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), Time of Arrival and Time Difference of Arrival. In this paper we are discussing about the RSSI technique [12][15], RSSI technique does need require additional hardware, which will not increase the hardware cost and the size of the nodes. However, due to RF signals influenced by the environment, the exact distance between the nodes cannot obtain by using RSSI [10][11], so the localization accuracy of nodes are not high. B. Range-free Range-free[5] localization never tries to estimate the absolute point to point distance based on received signal strength or other features of the received communication signal like time, angle, etc. This greatly simplifies the design of hardware, making range-free methods very appealing and a cost-effective alternative for localization in WSNs. Typical range-free localization algorithms[7] included Centroid ,DV-Hop, Amorphous, MDS-MAP[14] and APIT,etc. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) Measurement Principles RSSI measurement [3] calculates the signal loss in the dissemination process with the theory or experience loss of signal propagation model and distance calculated between transceiver to receiver by path distance formulae. Some measure terms which are important role in RSSI measurement as follows: Path Loss Model Path loss models [3] are free space propagation model, the logarithmic distance path loss model, Hata model, etc. the logarithmic distance path loss model [3] is shown by formula (1): (1) Where d is distance from transmitter to receiver and its unit is km, n is path loss exponent that measures the rate at which the RSSI decreases with distance and the value of n depends on the specific propagation environment, XÏÆ' is a zero mean Gaussian distributed random variable whose mean value is 0 and it reflects the change of the received signal power in certain distance, d0 is reference distance and usually equals 1 meter, PL(d0) is a known reference power value in dBmilliwatts at a reference distance d0 from the transmitter. Received Signal Power at Reference distance Suppose A is the received signal power in the distance d0 between trans- mitter and receiver, the formula (2) can be generated. (2) Where Pt is power of transmitter and PL(d0) is a known reference power value in dBmilliwatts at a reference distance d0 from the transmitter. Distance Calculated by RSSI measurement The RSSI Value at the certain distance is calculated by the given formula. (3) Where RSSI is the received signal power. A is the received signal power in the sdistance of 1meter,n is the path loss index and relates to the environment. Then we select maximum RSSI value and then we convert it into distance by given formulae. After calculating the RSSI values we can obtain the maximum value of the RSSI which is known as RSSImax. (4) Where RSSImax is the maximum received signal power selected from all the RSSI values. A is the received signal power in the distance of 1meter,n is the path loss index and relates to the environment. RSSI Measurement Algorithms When we go through the RSSI method then we have to go through the following step of the algorithms as follows: Result and Analysis Our simulation is done in 10m x 10m two dimensional environment. Node deployment accuracy is very important. 9 nodes are deployed randomly we can get their coordinate and suppose one known node as unknown node and then we can find the distances, path loss, Gaussian distributed value [3]. Figure 1 Random deployed node Where +: unknown node *: Beacon node In the simulation we assume (x1,y1): (3.4855, 2.7068) as unknown Node and further we calculate the distance, maximum RSSI value in Scenario of 9 node where one node suppose to be mobile[6] by RSSI Method when n=2 ,A=8.4734 dBm and power loss at reference distance is 31.5266 dBm. Table1.Distance Calculation When we simulate we found that distance measure by RSSI principle is 1.5726 meter, but when we applied the distance formulae for the Coordinate we found that exact distance is 5.4825.So we found that there is measure margin of error. Figure2. Error in distance calculated by RSSI In figure1 we can see that the distance calculated by RSSI is not accurate, because the error percentage is 71.35. Conclusions Localization performance will depend on many things, including the localization algorithm used, the quantity of prior coordinate information, the method selected, and the accuracies possible from those measurements in the environment of interest[12]. The RSSI measurement is studied in this paper, but this method is not more accurate because the radio frequency signals is affected by the environment[12][13], the exact distance between the nodes cannot obtain by RSSI measurement. Experimental measurement and simulation results show that the distance is obtain, but measurement is not accurate. The proposed method is a good option in wireless sensor node localization, because of low cost and less complexity of the simulation. In future we can work on improving the RSSI method for the more accuracy because sometimes there is problem of accurate distance and it depends only on the measurement parameter model. The result shows that in future if we work through the RSSI method for the specif ic scenarios like war (soldier) and forest fire then the method may provide the specific result and maybe there is need of some more Improvement in this proposed method because some time the result shown by experiment is out of bound so there is need of some more improvement. References [1] Yick J., Mukherjee B. and Ghosal D., â€Å"Wireless Sensor Network survey†, Elsevier  Computer Network, vol.52, pp. 2292– 2330, 2008. [2] Mao G., BarÄ ±s F. and Anderson B.D.O.,â€Å"Wireless Sensor Network Localization Techniques†, Elsevier Computer Networks, vol.51,pp. 2529–2553, 2007. [3] Zheng J., Wu C., Chu H. and Xu Y., â€Å"An Improved RSSI Measurement In Wireless  Sensor Networks†, Elsevier Procedia Engineering, vol.15, pp. 876 – 880, 2011. [4] Patwari N., Aah J. N. and Kyperountas S., â€Å"Locating the nodes cooperative localization In Wireless Sensor Network†, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol.22, No.4,  pp. 54-69, 2005. [5] Srinivasan A. and Wu J., â€Å"A Survey on Secure Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks†, Florida Atlantic University, USA. [6] Amundson I. and Koutsoukos X.D., â€Å"A Survey on Localization for Mobile Wireless  Sensor Networks†,Computer Science,Springer,vol.5801, pp. 235-254, 2009. [7] Han G., Xu H.,Duong R.Q., Jiang J.,and Hara T., â€Å"Localization algorithms of Wireless  Sensor Networks: a survey†, Telecommunication Systems, Springer, vol. 52, Issue 4,  pp. 2419-2436, 2013. [8] Zeng Y., Cao J., Hong J, Zhang S. And Xie L., â€Å"Secure localization and location very  fication in wireless sensor networks: a survey†, Springer, vol. 64, Issue 3, pp. 685-701,  2013. [9] Wei X. and Qi Y., â€Å"Research on Some Key Techniques of Wireless Sensor Network†,  Electrical Engineering, Springer, vol. 127, pp. 255-260, 2012. [10] Heo J, Kim J. H. and Hong C.S., â€Å"A Logical Group Formation and Management  Mechanism Using RSSI for Wireless Sensor Networks†, Computer Science,   Springer, vol. 5297, pp. 207-216, 2008 . [11] Erdogan S.Z., â€Å"Mobility Monitoring by Using RSSI in Wireless Sensor Net  Works†,Computer and Information Science, Springer, vol. 90, pp. 572-580,  2010. [12] Adewumi O., Djouani K.,and Kurien A., â€Å"Performance Evaluation of RSSI  Based Distance Measurement for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks†,  Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, Springer, vol.119,  pp. 74-83, 2013. [13] Ahn H., Lee Y.H., Cho H.J., Rhee S.B., and Lee J.H., â€Å"A RSSI-Based Approach for Localization of Wireless Sensor Network in Indoor†, Electrical   Engineering, Springer, vol. 120, pp. 123-127, 2012.   [14] Miao C., Dai G., Mao K., Li Y., and Chen Q., â€Å"RI-MDS: Multidimensional  Scaling Iterative Localization Algorithm Using RSSI in Wireless Sensor  Networks†, Computer and Information Science, Springer, vol. 501, pp. 164-  175, 2015. [15] Shen X., Wang Z., Jiang P., Lin R., and Sun Y., â€Å"Connectivity and RSSI  Based Localization Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks†, Computer Sci- ence, Springer, vol. 3645, pp. 578-587, 2005.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Boyz in the Hood Research Proposal

In his 1991 film Boyz N the Hood, director John Singleton crafts a world which defies the limitations of cinema to portray events realistically, depicting South Central Los Angeles in the 1980s and early ‘90's. The portrait of the neighborhood where protagonist Trey grows up is in many ways bleak and unflinching. With a casualty that suggests much about the circumstances that face impoverished black Americans in dangerous urban centers, the director marks the world of young Trey with all the trappings of the ghetto.The familiarity that neighborhood children feel toward violence, weapons and death is not as much stated as illustrated in the film, with altercations, gunfire and fatalities providing the backdrop to life. One is immediately struck by the grittiness of the depiction, with longview shots of streets and alleyways showing the constant state of peril and paranoia which came to ensconce Trey and his friends.The comfort that the director shows in dealing with material tha t has the potential to make viewers squeamish appears as a natural element of the story-telling, with the ugly realities of the film’s world taking on a role of exposition for the decisions of the young men of the neighborhood. â€Å"Singleton, having grown up in the kind of situations depicted in his film, created a world close to his heart and well within his knowledge.Thus the young writer/director followed the most-often-preached rule of storytelling – write what you know. † (Santo, 1) This qualified him uniquely to place his stamp as director on this film. Though the approach of bare-knuckled frankness in the film makes it shocking to watch for those unversed in its content, Singleton is successful at avoiding cliche or sensationalism by way of violence.The narrative is instead moved forward by the desires and experiences of the characters to resist the violence, substance abuse and unemployment that are epidemic around them. The film’s effective exa mination of these themes renders it a suitable primary text for a research examination on the treatment of such subjects in cinema. Works Cited Santo, Jason. (Oct. 31, 2003). Fair Enough Friday: You’re a Hack! MicrocinemaScene. Ret. 4/17/08 .

Friday, January 10, 2020

Want to Know More About Essay Samples with Analysis?

Want to Know More About Essay Samples with Analysis? Mind that downloading a few literary analysis essay examples is a fantastic idea. Scroll down the page in order to look at extra essay samples which can help you in producing your very own literary essay. There are several ways to compose an effective rhetorical analysis essay. Eliminate some content to have a look at the period of your essay. Essay conclusion examples to help you begin. At length, give a good Thesis. You might even discover that, with new data, you will have to revise your essay. It's the center of your literary essay, and the whole essay is going to be spent attempting to demonstrate this claim. Choose the region you need to found your essay on. Note the way that it's achieved in a sample literary analysis essay provided at our website. Quotes by the author that are relevant to your essay may also be used. The tradition of writing essays also develops critical thinking that is highly needed in any upcoming job. Every excellent essay ends with a superior conclusion. Apparently, writing an essay on this issue of marijuana is too general. Whispered Essay Samples with Analysis Secrets Job analysis includes the task identification of a specific job. Admission Essay Finance and management are disciplines that handle analysis and planning of financial resources that is a vital pillar in the growth of any nation. You'll have a less difficult time writing the analysis. For more guidance on how best to compose a literary analysis essay, don't hesitate to get in contact with us for individual assistance. The following is a sample of the sort of analytical essay you are being requested to write. Therefore, you've got to be well-prepared with respect to additional info, analysis, and researches of different people. After a brief period, you are given a thorough report containing information regarding your work. You do not have to be worried about your personal details that could be viewed, as we handle the matter on a safe network. Essay Samples with Analysis Help! An analytical kind of essay differs from different forms of essays in that its principal objective is to explain something bit by bit to increase understanding. The introduction needs to be directed at catching the reader's imagination. To keep on the right path, you have to take note of the structure and the particular styles utilised in writing. The particular detail that represents the analyzed theme are available in The Moths too. The third and last type of prejudice is truly a mixture of both of the other kinds of prejudice. Sometimes employing a hook statement can be effective, but it's not required. Let's look at a good example. The Fight Against Essay Samples with Analysis The introduction usually starts out with some kind of background info. Don't panic whenever your instructor tells you that you have to compose an analysis. There's no particular style for the introduction, but background information is easily the most typical process of approach. Keep in mind this type of analysis can take many forms and of course ought to be taylored according to certain scenarios and uses. The movie is educative at some level, since it introduces the audience to a different culture and teaches that you can make an opportunity from a grim circumstance. To earn a paper utilizing prompt will have a different kinds of odegaard writing essays the true ap language exam utilizing actual ap french. It gives an all-inclusive grasp of the core of subject to learn more knowledge from it. 1 method of argumentation won't be proper for each context. Bear in mind, you're analyzing an important element of the literature. In the event the metaphor is in accord with our private expertise, it's true. Essay Samples with Analysis for Dummies Summarizing your points is necessary, but the conclusion should synthesize all the various elements of the job you analyzed. Students need to understand how to compose persuasive essaysthis skill is critical as it is often tested. Not literally, obviously. Get familiar with the conventions and structures of each one of the kinds of poetry.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Essay about The Association of Maternal Bonds and Identity...

Toni Morrison’s novel, Beloved, is a â€Å"haunting stray of a mother’s love that frames a series of irrelated love stories by multiple narrators† (Bell 61). The main character Sethe is a mother who fails to realize her children’s needs. She attempts to protect her children from the community amongst many other dangers such as slavery and love, however ultimately isolating them. Sethe’s character as well as actions confirms the â€Å"struggle and psychological trauma of slavery† (Napierkowski 35) from which she suffers. Shapes of almonds and depth â€Å"like two wells,†(9) Sethe’s eyes are â€Å"some sign to warn folks of what that emptiness held† (9). Sethe has yet to confront the absence of her mother, which reflects the idea that â€Å"one of the cruelest†¦show more content†¦Once escaping Sweet Home, Sethe births her daughter Denver on a river bank, goes to jail, and more. She finally arrives in Ohio at 12 4 Bluestone, a home that is later haunted by her deceased daughter. Still devoting all of her efforts to her children, Sethe attempts to save them from the physical, emotional, and spiritual trauma slavery causes by attempting to murder them. All of Sethe’s motives are out of love, however, â€Å"for a used-to-be slave woman to love anything that much was dangerous† (45). Her love indirectly pushes her children into the world versus saving them from it. Her sons Buglar and Howard abandon the haunted house in hopes of escaping their past and the ghost. Because Sethe focuses on the past so much, it ruins her, and she doesn’t know who she really is. The return and presence of Beloved â€Å"forces Sethe to confront her past and thus reconcile her vision of herself† (Perkins 43). Critics and also Sethe describe Beloved as the â€Å"reincarnation† (Perkins 43) of her dead daughter. Symbolically Beloved is the epitome of pain and struggle from Setheâ₠¬â„¢s past. Ironically the ghost’s name is Beloved the same word engraved on the Sethe’s baby’s tombstone. Beloved is also the age Sethe’s daughter would be if she was alive (Napierkowski). Beloved is clueless as to why she is here or from where she came, however, she manages to ask Sethe questions that originate from her past like,Show MoreRelatedFactors Affecting Literature Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools in Uganda19646 Words   |  79 Pagesbeen duly read and submitted for examination with the approval of my supervisor, Rev. Fr. Zzimbe Blaise Ssebizibu. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Rev. Fr. ZZIMBE BLAISE SSEBIZIBU (MA. ED) DATE†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. DEDICATION To my beloved parents, Mr. Charles Mukasa Sseriiso, Mrs. Louise Mary Nnabbosa Sseriiso and Mr. Francis Xavier Kitaka whose simple Christian faith has always been my source of inspiration and empowerment. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My acknowledgments

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Divorce and Its Impact on Cpuples and Children Essay

The term divorce is a legal term that denotes the separation of two individuals in a legal manner that was once connected to each other as a result of marriage. Divorce can be a lifetime separation between couples and can even be a limited time separation between couples. Recently, the world has witnessed a surge in the number of divorces taking place and the occurrence of this event is even at its peak in the United States. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported during the period of 2011, that out of every 1000 individuals, almost 3.6 individuals have experienced divorce (cdc.gov, 2013). Divorce does not only impact the couples who are being separated, it even impacts the children of the couples. Much emphasis has been†¦show more content†¦Divorces mostly occur as a result of thrifts between the couples and due to this their psychological wellbeing is hampered and when psychological wellbeing of individuals is compromised, it is more likely that the couples fail to focus on their work which may result in financial issues. Divorce may mitigate these psychological issues and the couples may be able to focus on their work in a better manner and this may eventually result in better financial rewards attained from high performance. It is not necessary that children are always negatively impacted by a divorce. Divorce as stated again and again mostly occur due to frugalities between parents and these frugalities may result in domestic abuse or domestic violence experienced by children. A divorce resulting due to case of domestic violence may favorably impact the children, since children may be able to avoid these abuses. Secondly when parents are involved in fighting with each other, they tend to give up on their bonding with their children. Divorces can be a solution, as well as bonding between parents and children may increase as a result of divorce because after a divorce parents will have more time to spend with their children instead of fighting with each other. Although, couples take the option of divorce after their dissatisfaction with their marriage but divorces impact both the

Monday, December 16, 2019

Factor Affecting Organizational Behavior Free Essays

string(46) " watches an assigned video and write a paper\." Facilitator: Harry J. Bury, Ph. D. We will write a custom essay sample on Factor Affecting Organizational Behavior or any similar topic only for you Order Now Office: (216) 826-2395 Home: (216) 891-9517 E MAIL: hbury@bw. edu Website: http://homepages. bw. edu/~hbury The macro-perspective provides a broader view of organizational effectiveness by dealing with the major sub-units of the organization rather than individuals and small groups. This perspective deals with employee behavior as well as with overall design of the organization, efficiency, and adaptation to the environment.The macro-route to organizational change includes design of individual roles and organizational structures, relationships among roles, control systems, and information technology. A field activity in organizational development is a major focus of the course. To be an effective systems manager one needs to be adept at working in teams, achieving goals and objectives with and through other people. In addition, people tend to learn more when they are involved in the learning process and when they are called upon to facilitate the learning of others. We have nineteen meetings together during this session.Hardly enough time to understand the Theories of Organizational Behavior. Hence, we will only scratch the surface. The objective is to spark our interest so that we all are motivated to delve deeper into this marvelous and exciting subject matter the rest of our lives. Each time I have the privilege to facilitate the learning of this material I change the process in order to both find a more effective way to achieve the goals of learning and to not become boring through repetition. The process will include a feedback sheet which each participant is asked to submit each meeting.It is designed to enable me to understand what is happening with you as we proceed through this learning experience together. On the sheet will be a place for you to ask questions. I do not claim to have answers but your questions may well cause valuable discussion in Organizational Behavior areas of class interest and enable the experience to be a practical one. I will share my opinion and ask course participants to do the same. I ask that you fill out the feedback sheet the weekend of the class itself and please give it to me at 7:00 p. m. he following Friday evening class. Each team will usually meet together on Friday evening from 7:00 p. m. to 7:15 p. m. The purpose of the meeting is to reflect together about the learnings of the previous class in order to get our minds focused on the subject matter. We suggest that individuals who arrive early begin the team meeting at once in an effort to be efficient and perhaps eliminate or shorten team meetings on non-class days. First Organizational Development Learning Opportunity This year a major focus is to better understand organizations by changing them.Consequently, learning teams of two persons will select an organization (such as a branch bank, a police or fire department, a small business, an accounting department, a dental practice, a library, the Board of Directors of the Jaycees, etc. ) and do an organizational change effort aimed at transforming the culture or total system of an organization or organizational subunit. A team building process would be excellent. Remember, these are not simply training activities. Facilitators need to focus on the process of the client system.Interventions need to relate to how the client system does its work in terms of facilitating improvement. The course facilitator’s assumption is that this is a year long change project. It would be helpful to find the client system during the summer. The facilitators will report their results to the class and submit a written report to each colleague and two reports to the course facilitator. In the past, facilitators have invited persons from the client system to participate in the presentation to the class and it has proved very effective.The written report may be of any length necessary to cover the essentials with a major focus on the results of your various interventions. Capture and present to the class the spirit of the change process as well as the organizational and personal goal accomplishments. Two facilitator teams will report their progress to the class each session and invite the class to participate in their questions and dilemmas. Each team will meet with the course facilitator beforehand to design the class facilitation at the completion of their intervention. Second Learning OpportunityIn addition, teams of five will research a leading-edge company in Organizational Development and present their findings to the class in the form of a written report the session prior and lead a discussion of their findings the next session. Use the text Maverick as an example of a leading edge company. Please divide the report into three parts: 1. Description of the company’s cutting edge behaviors. Note, the emphasis on actual behavior, not theory. 2. What the Learning Team thinks about the cutting edge behaviors, what further advances the company will make, etc. 3.Indicate how each of the learning team members plan to implement their learnings from this experience in their own work place. Remember to distribute the written report for both assignments two weeks before facilitating the discussion of the team’s organization’s behavior. If possible, invite the CEO, plant manager and hourly personnel to participate in the discussion. Third Learning Opportunity Your team is to find a work group/organization that will allow you to observe people at work. Using information from Chapter 21, redesign their workgroups jobs for the purpose of increasing performance and intrinsic motivation. Return to the workgroup and share your new design with both the workers and the supervisor separately and be attentive to their feedback. Capture the learning from this entire experience in a paper of about 3 to 4 pages and be prepared to present your findings to the class. Everyone attending every class meeting will have two points added to the final grade. If one misses a class, two points will be deducted from the final grade unless one watches an assigned video and write a paper. You read "Factor Affecting Organizational Behavior" in category "Papers" This is not punishment. It is an opportunity to get one’s money’s worth by added learning.All team members will receive the same grade for the company research project. The same for the two person facilitation project. In addition, both the quality of the content as well as the spirit of the contributions are significant variables in grading. A+ = 99 to 100% Facilitator Project First Learning Opportunity, 50% A = 94 to 98% Company Research Second Learning Opportunity, 30% A- = 90 to 93% Third Learning Opportunity and Participation each 10% B+ = 87 to 89%B = 83 to 86% B- = 80 to 82% C+ = 76 to 79% C = 73 to 75% C- = 70 to 72% A-, A and A+ means going beyond standard-doing more than what would be normally expected of an EMBA participant. SCHEDULE Introduction: Discussion of OD Consulting Intervention, Appreciative Inquiry Deanna Anthony, Ch. 21 A New Strategy For Job Involvement (p. 636) Third Learning Opportunity Report from all five teams David Blain, Ch. 7 Active Listening (p. 208) Active Listening Exercise Visualization Revisited. An Exercise in Team Visualization Richard Clark, Ch. The Thinking Organization: How Patterns of Thought Determine Organizational Culture (p. 244) Paul Colella, Ch. 14 Coming to New Awareness of Organizational Culture (p. 427) An Exercise in Force Field Analysis Other Cultural Issues Trina Rauscher-Cooper, Ch. 22 Why Change Programs Don’t Produce Change (p. 665) Brian Dean, Ch. 22 Managing the Human Side of Change (p. 676) Darlene Grant, Ch. 22 Rules of Thumb for Change Agents (p. 683) Regina Johnson, Ch. 9 Work Teams: Applications and Effectiveness (p. 68) Salvatore Lazar, Ch. 9 Group Think Reconsidered (p. 251) Film Matthew Lopiccolo, Ch. 13 Firms With a Superior Leadership Capacity: Practices that Creat Better-Than-Everage. Management Teams (p. 416) Team I Second Learning Opportunity Report. Discussion, application Gordon McCance, Ch. 14 Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Grow Team II Second Learning Opportunity Report. Discussion and application David Miskel, Ch. 13 – Four Competencies of Leadership (p. 395) Team III Second Learning Opportunity Report.Discussion and application Craig Niedermien, Ch. 13 Super Leadership: Beyond the Myth of Heroic Leadership (p. 401) Team IV Second Leadership Opportunity Report. Discussion, application Sherry Ochmann, Ch. 16 The Leadership Challenge – A Call for Transformational Leader (p. 476) Team V Second Leadership Opportunity Report. Discussion, application Patrick O’Connor, Ch. 12 Vive La Difference? Gender and Management in the New Work Place (p. 366) Rich Rawlinson, Ch. 12 The Multicultural Organization (p. 53) First Learning Opportunity Reports Ken Ressler, Ch. 11 Managing Conflict Among Groups (p. 317) Intergroup Exercise First Learning Opportunity Reports First Learning Opportunity Reports TEXTS: No one book is adequate for the course. The expectation is that graduate students will consult many sources. Hence many books and videos are on reserve for you in the library. Please avail yourself of these marvelous resources. In addition, two texts are necessary for this course. Organizational Behavior Reader, by Kolb, D. , Osland, J. , and Rubin, ISixth Edition, Prentice Hall, 1995 Maverick, Recardo Semler, Warner Books, 1993; Expectations Criteria for achieving high marks for participation I expect each of you to: – Change seats each class meeting. Make a point to sit next to all other 24 members of this class organization. – Be open and honest with me, your peers, and associates. Let me know what is going well for you and what is not. – Go out of your way to avoid obstacles with communications. If I am presenting an obstacle to you or become a roadblock, let me know. Manage your area of responsibility in such a way as to positively contribute to the overall class results as well as your personal goals and objectives. A gain for you at the expense of someone else is a loss for the whole class. Teamwork is essential — here is no room for â€Å"gamesmanship† or â€Å"one up† stuff. – Know what is going on in other EMBA classes as well as companies and organizations off campus. Visit them and have them visit us-find out how they manage things-steal all the ideas you can-network whenever possible.The greatest compliment you can give me as a class facilitator is to bring friends to class. – Keep me informed-verbally and with written material-Use your judgment about frequency, methods, etc. I’ll let you know if it is meeting my needs. – Provide me with feedback (included page 10) that indicates your ideas, feelings, progress. – Do your best to solve problems. Do not present me with problems to solve; instead, develop alternatives and act if possible. If you need my input, I am available to provide it. Use me as a â€Å"sounding board†/coach. Involve your work team and associates, even family in planning, meeting challenges, improvement, etc. They might know more about something than you do. Mix with first year participants and Health Care EMBAs at lunch and dinner. Serve as mentors, show your knowledge and experience. – Assess how you are impacting this class-adding to it, treading water, or pulling us under. – Help me and your class colleagues-volunteer and respond to requests.Plan to get together for drinks and conversation after class each Friday evening. Do not rush to leave the company of your colleagues in this program. Also, helping others, whether manager, facilitator or colleague, is not â€Å"sucking up†, but networking and cooperative behavior designed to benefit the whole system. – Continually strive to improve the quality and efficiency of the educational process. Constantly ask yourself, â€Å"How can I learn more, better apply what I am learning, help others in the class learn? – Know all your class colleagues; find out what they need and expect from you; ask them to evaluate you. – Complete requests from me by the due date or negotiate other arrangements in advance of the due date. Lead. If you see a lack of leadership by me or others, take the lead. It is not vested in me. Be proactive rather than reactive. – Expect a lot from your team, your class colleagues and yourself. – Behave in ways that positively contribute to us being more human with each other; respect the dignity of each individual. – Grow and help others grow. I am bored around people who are treading water. How are you a more valuable person this month than last – what have you learned, what skills have you improved, how are you better? – Challenge me, I need to grow too! – Have a lot of fun doing this work! How to cite Factor Affecting Organizational Behavior, Papers